Although all e-cigarettes do not contain nicotine, researchers at the University of Connecticut have found that they may be as dangerous, in some ways, as unfiltered cigarettes. Through developments in 3D printing, the research team was able to see that e-cigarettes can cause just as much DNA damage as tobacco cigarettes. Many people think of e-cigarettes as ‘less harmful’ than tobacco cigarettes, and therefore use them to try to quit smoking. Based on these findings, that may not necessarily be true. Even e-cigarettes without any nicotine caused amounts of DNA damage that were comparable to filtered cigarettes. DNA damage leads to mutations, permanent changes that can trigger the development of cancer.