Cancer patients have long been treated for the TYPE of cancer they have (breast, lung, prostate, etc.). Newer approaches are designed to look for drug targets that are common between cancer types. The idea is to treat the cancer based on its genetic makeup, regardless of where it appears.
The National Cancer Institute is running a trial to look into doing exactly that. The Molecular Analysis for Therapy Choice (NCI-MATCH) trial is the largest clinical trial of this kind. The results of important studies like this will shape the treatments for cancer patients for many years to come.